Setting up a Software Development Environment for Mac OS, Ubuntu Linux and Windows

Sean E. O'Connor


I show how to set up a software development environment for Mac OS Ubuntu Linux and Windows When we're done, we'll be able to develop programs in C, C++, Python, Javascript, and Lisp using Unix tools.

SYSTEM SETUP - Mac OS - Ubuntu Linux - Windows

Ubuntu Linux

Ubuntu Desktop.
Ubuntu Desktop

I will install on an old MacBook Pro (17-inch, Early 2009) running OS X El Capitan Version 10.11.6 (15G31).

You can read through these excellent guides on how to install Linux on a Mac (the definitive guide) and how to dual boot Linux and Mac OS I took a little from both and from the Ubuntu web site documentation.

Installing the Boot Loader

The Mac's own boot manager has problems recognizing the Ubuntu OS. Thus you need to install a third party EFI (Extensible Firmware Interface) boot manager to be able to dual boot the Mac into Ubuntu or Mac OS. Visit the rEFInd Boot Manager Web Page. Download rEFIfind version

rEFInd Downloading
Downloading rEFFind

Disable SIP (System Integrity Protection) so you can install the boot loader. Shut down the Mac for 30 seconds. Then reboot in recovery mode. You can hold down the Option key and select the Recovery Disk. Select Terminal from the OSX Utitities menu bar and type csrutil disable. Then reboot again.

Unzip and install. You'll see I've already installed it once before.rEFInd

Gauss:refind-bin-0.11.2 seanoconnor$ sudo ./refind-install ShimSource is none Installing rEFInd on OS X.... Installing rEFInd to the partition mounted at /Volumes/ESP Found rEFInd installation in /Volumes/ESP/EFI/refind; upgrading it. Found suspected Linux partition(s); installing ext4fs driver. Installing driver for ext4 (ext4_x64.efi) Copied rEFInd binary files Notice: Backed up existing icons directory as icons-backup. Existing refind.conf file found; copying sample file as refind.conf-sample to avoid overwriting your customizations.

Now Shut Down your Mac.

Disk Drive and Partitions

Bring up the Disk Utility and resize your Mac OS partition smaller to give more room to Ubuntu. If you have extra non-contiguous partitions which you cannot merge, you can at least format them as ExFat so Linux can see them later.

In detail, here are our disk partititions,

Seans-MBP:~ seanoconnor$ diskutil list /dev/disk0 (internal, physical): #: TYPE NAME SIZE IDENTIFIER 0: GUID_partition_scheme *320.1 GB disk0 1: EFI EFI 209.7 MB disk0s1 2: Linux Filesystem 130.0 GB disk0s2 3: Linux Swap 9.7 GB disk0s3 4: Apple_HFS Recovery HD 650.0 MB disk0s4 5: Microsoft Basic Data Untitled 100.5 GB disk0s5 6: Apple_Boot Recovery HD 650.0 MB disk0s6 7: Apple_CoreStorage Gauss 77.7 GB disk0s7 8: Apple_Boot Recovery HD 650.0 MB disk0s8 /dev/disk1 (internal, virtual): #: TYPE NAME SIZE IDENTIFIER 0: Apple_HFS Gauss +77.3 GB disk1 Logical Volume on disk0s7 D016C459-3197-4791-9145-96EF497E4E65 Unlocked Encrypted Seans-MBP:~ seanoconnor$ diskutil listFilesystems Formattable file systems These file system personalities can be used for erasing and partitioning. When specifying a personality as a parameter to a verb, case is not considered. Certain common aliases (also case-insensitive) are listed below as well. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- PERSONALITY USER VISIBLE NAME ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ExFAT ExFAT Free Space Free Space (or) free MS-DOS MS-DOS (FAT) MS-DOS FAT12 MS-DOS (FAT12) MS-DOS FAT16 MS-DOS (FAT16) MS-DOS FAT32 MS-DOS (FAT32) (or) fat32 HFS+ Mac OS Extended Case-sensitive HFS+ Mac OS Extended (Case-sensitive) (or) hfsx Case-sensitive Journaled HFS+ Mac OS Extended (Case-sensitive, Journaled) (or) jhfsx Journaled HFS+ Mac OS Extended (Journaled) (or) jhfs+
Create a Bootable Ubuntu USB Stick

Download Ubuntu Desktop, version Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (Bionic Beaver). You'll get a file in your Downloads folder called ubuntu-18.04-desktop-amd64.iso

Create a Bootable USB Stick for Mac. I'll go through a worked example below.

You'll need a 2GB USB thumb drive or larger. Insert it and bring up Disk Utility with the option of Show All Devices

Select the device, not the volume. Make sure it's NOT you hard drive or backup drive!

Now erase the disk specifying format = MS-DOS (FAT) and Scheme = GUID Partition Map

Next, install the open source utility Etcher, downloading the version for Mac OS.

Now run it, selecting the Ubuntu ISO file and the thumb drive the push Flash. Etcher will ask for your system password and give you an estimated time.

After completion, select Eject

Install Ubuntu

Connect an Ethernet cable to your Internet Service Provider and the other end to your Mac; use a USB to Ethernet dongle if you don't have a native Ethernet port on your Mac.

Plug the USB drive containing the Ubuntu Linux distribution into your Mac. Restart your Mac. If you installed rEFInd the boot manager will automatically appear. Select the EFI Boot icon from the list in the boot device menu.

If you have a problem seeing the boot manager, or if you already have done an Ubuntu installation do this: as soon as the Mac starts to boot up, hold down the Option key. Keep holding it down until you see the Mac's boot manager display a list of available devices you can start up from. Select the EFI Boot icon from the list in the boot device menu.

Now go through the Ubuntu installation process.

You'll see either This computer currently has no detected operating systems. Or if you had previously installed Ubuntu, This computer has Ubuntu 16.04.4 LTS on it.. Select something else since we want to fiddle with partitions.

Here is the list of partitions,

Now select the partition you want to use for Ubuntu (the 130GB) and hit - to delete it. You'll see it converted to free space.

Reformat the freespace using + as Ext4 journaling file system with mount point /.

Also give yourself about 10GB of Linux swap space,

Finally, click on the Format ? box, then click on Install Now

Your last chance, so double check what Ubuntu wants to do!

Now continue the installation. Ubuntu asks you where you are located. Next, enter user name and password. You will be the superuser.

Now let the installation complete, remove the thumb drive and reboot into Ubuntu automatically. Ubuntu asks if you want to update; say yes.

Just for grins, open Terminal and run a manual updating and upgrade all software.

sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get upgrade
Two Display Screens Show Up Instead of One

The Mac comes up with two displays shown. Toggle one display to avoid showing one blank display when screen sharing.

Wireless Connection

Connect to your local Wireless node by clicking on the top right menu bar settings.

Select Wireless settings, and type in your Wireless Key and connect.

I didn't need to do this, but I'll leave it here in case you run into problems and need to explicitly install the Wireless driver. I found it by looking at Broadcom Linux Wireless Drivers Install using the line below and reboot after you install.

sudo apt install bcmwl-kernel-source
Mounting an Additional FAT Partition

I had an unused partition, so I launched the Disks application and formatted it as Extended FAT to be visible to Ubuntu. You might have to toggle the Right Arrow icon to mount it; it will say mounted at /media/seanoconnor/Backup

Here then is the final partition map,
Reading USB Drives Formatted in Extended FAT

To read a USB drive formatted in Extended FAT format, install the drivers.

sudo apt-get install exfat-utils exfat-fuse

Now you can format a USB drive as Ex FAT, plug it into your computer, and read it.

Changing the Terminal Type
I want to execute the bash startup files the same way Mac OS does. So you need tell Ubuntu to run the terminal window as a login shell:
File Sharing Between Mac and Ubuntu Computers

Install Vim first so you can edit files. To install file sharing across computers, find out your username

users seanoconnor

then install Samba, and give a sharing password,

sudo apt-get install samba sudo smbpasswd -a seanoconnor

Let's share the Desktop directory under $HOME. First copy the system config file to your local directory,

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf ~

Edit the smb.conf file by adding these lines to the end,

[share] path = /home/seanoconnor/Desktop valid users = seanoconnor read only = no

Start the Samba client,

sudo apt-get install smbclient sudo service smbd restart

To speed up SMB sharing, (it still takes a minute or two on my Mac), add the IP addresses and hostnames of all your local computers to the /etc/hosts file

Install ifconfig so you can see the IP addresses.

sudo apt install net-tools

Get the hostname on my Ubuntu Linux computer and it's IP address

hostname Gauss ifconfig ... inet 333.333.3.33 netmask broadcast 333.333.3.255 ...

Get the hostname on my Mac OS computer,

hostname Artificer ifconfig ... inet 333.333.3.34 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 333.333.3.255 ...

Add these two host names and their IP addresses, localhost ... 333.333.3.33 Gauss 333.333.3.34 Artificer

Launch the File Manager application. In your Home directory, double click the Desktop directory. Turn on sharing in Local Network Share and allow others to create and delete files.

Back on Mac OS, mount the shared remote directory, which will prompt you for the Samba password you just set,

cd ~/Desktop mkdir Ubuntu mount -t smbfs //seanoconnor@Gauss/Desktop ~/Desktop/Ubuntu

You'll see the shared directory on the Ubuntu machine, so go ahead and Connect

Screen Sharing from Mac to Ubuntu

Go to the Ubuntu settings to enable screen sharing,

In Terminal you'll see the screen sharing server listening on port 5900

seanoconnor:~$ ss -lnt State Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address:Port Peer Address:Port LISTEN 0 50* LISTEN 0 5* LISTEN 0 128* LISTEN 0 5* LISTEN 0 50* LISTEN 0 50 [::]:139 [::]:* LISTEN 0 5 [::]:5900 [::]:* LISTEN 0 5 [::1]:631 [::]:* LISTEN 0 50 [::]:445 [::]:*

You'll need to fiddle with the protections on GNOME to make the Mac screen sharing work properly and not give you the error message Screen sharing software is not compatible when you attempt to connect.

gsettings set org.gnome.Vino require-encryption false

and maybe you will have to do this also,

sudo ufw allow from any to any port 5900 proto tcp [sudo] password for seanoconnor: Rules updated Rules updated (v6)

On the Mac, you'll see the remote screen share, in Finder

Click Share and enter the password.

Here's the final Ubuntu Linux screen on the Mac

Other Ubuntu Apps and Tweaks

Ubuntu comes with Thunderbird email among other applications. You can open Ubuntu Software in the Applications folder and search for more.

Install Gnome-Tweaks using the Ubuntu software app (shopping bag icon).

In the Settings you can launch apps upon startup,

Mac OS

You get everything installed out of the box. You do have to configure your System Preferences.


You get everything installed out of the box.


Developer Tools Mac

Mac OS X comes with most of the the Unix utilities make, diff, gcc, g++ (the clang equivalent), lldb, etc. already installed. To get recent versions, you can install the free XCode IDE from the Apple App Store

Download XCode from Apple App Store.
Download XCode from Apple App Store

Developer Tools Ubuntu Linux

Naturally, you've got all the unix tools or can easily install them using sudo apt-get from the terminal.

UNIX Tools Windows

Load Cygwin utilities from Cygwin home. Choose download to disk without installing to C:/Install/Cygwin Use direct connection and pick a mirror site. Next, run setup.exe. Pick view=full. Now select all the defaults and also be sure to add bash, bison, byacc, cvs, ctags, diff, flex, gcc, g++, gdb, hexedit, ncurses, make, python, sed, tar, zip and unzip. Then run setup again but this time install from the local disk. You'll get a cygwin icon on the desktop which you can launch shell commands from.

Cygwin Setup Part 1. Cygwin Setup Part 2. Cygwin Setup Part 3.
Cygwin Setup

Bash Settings

I'm using the BASH shell. Read the Beginner's Guide, Tutorial, and Reference then go to your home directory, and place the bash startup files .bash_login, .bash_logout and .bashrc there.

In Windows the home directory is in C:/Documents and Settings/Sean Erik O'Connor. Note: If your user name in your /home directory contains spaces, it will cause trouble. cygwin gets it from the windows logon name. You can edit the /etc/passwd file and change the Cygwin user name (first field), then rename your directory.

#============================================================================= # # FILE NAME # # .bash_profile # # DESCRIPTION # # bash shell startup file for Unix systems, executed upon login. # # Install into your home directory ~. Also called .profile or # .bash_login # # DATE # # 23 Feb 17 # # AUTHOR # # Sean E. O'Connor # #============================================================================= # #------------- Portability ------- # # Try to determine which system we are running on. #----------------------------------------------------------------------------- #--- Set the path #----------------------------------------------------------------------------- # Be sure to put useful scripts and executables into the home bin directory: ~/bin bins="/usr/local/bin:~/bin" # To set the hostname manually on Mac OS X # sudo hostname Artificer" # sudo scutil --set LocalHostName Artificer # sudo scutil --set ComputerName Artificer # sudo scutil --set HostName Artificer # In System Preferences/Sharing change 'Computer Name' to Artificer. # In your local network configuration, rename the name provided by DHCP. # Find out the hostname. In cygwin bash, strip off the trailing \r introduced. # The alternative is to use tr -d '\r' hostname=`python -c "import platform; print( platform.node() )" | sed 's/^[ \r\n\t]*$//'` if [ "${hostname}" == "" ] ; then echo "Could not get a hostname. We will guess a new Mac system!" hostname="Artificer" fi # Installing Python 3 on the Mac: # ------------------------------- # Go to # # Create a symbolic link to the new python version, # cd /Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.x/bin # sudo ln -s python3.x python # Verify we are calling the new python using # python -V # The python installer will automatically prefix the directory # :/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.x/bin: # to your path at the end of this file. Remove it. # # To call the default python2.7.2 for Mac OS X in a terminal window, comment out this line, and do # source ~/.bash_profile # # Installing Python 3 on Ubuntu Linux # ----------------------------------- # Just put a symbolic link to python 3 in /usr/local/bin as follows, # cd /usr/local/bin" # sudo ln -s /usr/bin/python3.6 python" # Test using # echo " python -V" # Mac OS if [ "${hostname}" == "Artificer" ] ; then py3bin="/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.6/bin" ###echo "Using Mac OS X System Python version path = ${PATH}" # Ubuntu Linux elif [ "${hostname}" == "Gauss" ] ; then py3bin="/usr/local/bin" ###echo "Using Ubuntu Linux Python version path = ${PATH}" fi # CMake tool used for Blender. cmakebin="/Applications/" # Universal ctags path. # First install brew from # # using # /usr/bin/ruby -e "$(curl -fsSL" # Then install the ctags Mac OS binary from # # using # brew install --HEAD universal-ctags/universal-ctags/universal-ctags ctagspath="/usr/local/Cellar/universal-ctags/HEAD-4fe1a60/bin" PATH="${HOME}:${ctagspath}:${cmakebin}:${py3bin}:${bins}:${PATH}" export PATH # Error check: # Make sure Python 3 is installed on your system. Get the version and redirect from stderr to stdout. python_version=`python -V 2>&1` # Delete minor versions (numbers after the first dot), and spaces, e.g. Python 3.6.0 => Python3 python_version_stripped=`echo ${python_version} | sed 's/\.[0-9]//g' | sed 's/[ \r]//g'` # Check the version and give help. if [ "${python_version_stripped}" != "Python3" ] ; then echo "WARNING: Calling o l d python version ${python_version} from `which python` in path $PATH" fi # Default settings. ls_color_option="-G" desk_dir="${HOME}/Desktop" thumb_dir="/Volumes/ALNILAM" extra_bin_path="/usr/local/bin" # Windows 7 64-bit running in Parallels running in Mac OS. if [ "${hostname}" == "SEANOCONNORBC36" ] ; then ### echo "Overriding Mac settings --- this is a Windows machine!" ls_color_option="--color=tty" desk_dir="/cygdrive/c/cygwin/home/Sean" thumb_dir="/cygdrive/e" # Windows has endless trouble with blanks in filenames, so use DOS 8.3 equivalent file name. desk_dir="/cygdrive/c/docume~1/Sean/Desktop" fi #------------- Export base directories for use by other programs ------------- # The root directory has /Sean under it and /Sean/WebSite underneath that. export desk_dir export thumb_dir #echo "Hostname = |${hostname}|" #echo "Root dir |${desk_dir}|, thumb dir |${thumb_dir}|, desk_dir |${desk_dir}|" #------------- Directory Shorthands ------------- # Top level directories sean_dir="${desk_dir}/Sean" app_dir="${desk_dir}/Apps" export sean_dir export app_dir # Level 1. arts_dir="${sean_dir}/Arts" business_dir="${sean_dir}/Business" family_dir="${sean_dir}/Family" science_dir="${sean_dir}/Sciences" web_dir="${sean_dir}/WebSite" export arts_dir export business_dir export family_dir export science_dir export web_dir # Quickly cd to subdirectories by typing cd subdir. # Need . in the list to avoid having to put ./ in front of directories. export CDPATH=.:~:${sean_dir}:${pp_src_dir} # Mac system tweaks. if [ "${hostname}" == "Artificer" ] ; then # Show hidden files in finder (needs a relaunch of finder). defaults write AppleShowAllFiles TRUE fi # Finish up the aliases. source .bashrc export PATH
#---------------------------------------------------------------------------- # # TITLE # # .bashrc # # DESCRIPTION # # # Bourne Again Shell (bash) startup file for Unix systems. Executed # everytime we start a subshell. Install into your home directory ~. # Put aliases and functions here. # # Use source .bashrc to reset the environment after you are in a # terminal window. Place the line "source .bashrc" into .bash_profile # to execute this file's commands upon login. # # To debug, use sh -x .bashrc # # DATE # # 27 Jul 11 # # AUTHOR # # Sean E. O'Connor # #---------------------------------------------------------------------------- #------------- Aliases ------------- # # Be sure to put useful scripts and executables into the home bin directory, ~/bin or global /usr/local/bin # alias desk='cd ${desk_dir}' alias thum='cd ${thumb_dir}' alias sean='cd ${sean_dir}' alias app='cd ${app_dir}' alias art='cd ${arts_dir}/Visual/Painting/OriginalWorks' alias bus='cd ${business_dir}' alias fam='cd ${family_dir}' alias sci='cd ${science_dir}' alias web='cd ${web_dir}' alias math='cd ${science_dir}/Mathematics' alias comp='cd ${science_dir}/ComputerScience' alias acc='cd ${business_dir}/Accounts' web_des_dir="${web_dir}/WebDesign" alias wd='cd "${web_dir}/WebDesign"' web_main_dir="${web_des_dir}/MaintainWebPage/" alias main='cd ${web_dir}/WebDesign/MaintainWebPage' alias priv='cd ${web_dir}/private' alias artw='cd ${web_dir}/Art' alias plu='cd ${app_dir}/Plum' crc_dir="${web_dir}/CommunicationTheory/ChannelCoding/Crc" alias lif='cd ${web_dir}/ComputerScience/Automata/Life' alias lis='cd ${web_dir}/ComputerScience/Compiler/ParserGeneratorAndParser/SourceCode/ParserGenerator' pp_dir="${web_dir}/Mathematics/AbstractAlgebra/PrimitivePolynomials" pp_proj_dir="${pp_dir}/Project" pp_bld_dir="${pp_dir}/Project/Build" pp_src_dir="${pp_dir}/Project/SourceCode" pp_exe_dir="${pp_bld_dir}/Bin" alias pp='cd ${pp_dir}' alias ppb='cd ${pp_bld_dir}' alias pps='cd ${pp_src_dir}/Primpoly' alias ppsc='cd ${pp_src_dir}/PrimpolyC' # Other directories. #------------- Git ------- # Location of git repository. export GITREPOS="${web_dir}/private/repos" #------------- Set prompt ------- # # Define colors for the text in a prompt. # startcolor="\[\e[" black="30" red="31" green="32" yellow="33" blue="34" magenta="35" teal="36" white="37" separator=";" blackbackground="40" redbackground="41" greenbackground="42" yellowbackground="43" bluebackground="44" magentabackground="45" tealbackground="46" whitebackground="47" reset="0" boldtext="1" underline="4" blink="5" inverted="7" endcolor="m\]" resetcolor="\e[0m" whiteonblue="${startcolor}${white}${separator}${bluebackground}${endcolor}" redonblue="${startcolor}${red}${separator}${bluebackground}${endcolor}" # Set the prompt to # time \@, date \d, user name \u, host name \h, current directory \w # \W basename of current directory, \$ if UID = 0 (root), use # instead of $ export PS1="${redonblue}\u:${whiteonblue}\w${resetcolor}\$ " ###echo ${PS1} #------------- Shell options ------------- # # Set vi edit mode for the command line. # Hit to go into vi's edit command mode: # h Move cursor left # l Move cursor right # A Move cursor to end of line and put in insert mode # 0 (zero) Move cursor to beginning of line (doesn't put in insert mode) # i Put into insert mode at current position # a Put into insert mode after current position # dd Delete line (saved for pasting) # D Delete text after current cursor position (saved for pasting) # p Paste text that was deleted # j Move up through history commands # k Move down through history commands # u Undo set -o vi # Don't wait for job termination notification set -o notify # Don't use ^D to exit set -o ignoreeof # Use case-insensitive filename globbing shopt -s nocaseglob # Make bash append rather than overwrite the history on disk shopt -s histappend # When changing directory small typos can be ignored by bash # for example, cd /vr/lgo/apaache would find /var/log/apache shopt -s cdspell shopt -s cdable_vars #------------- Completion options ------------- # # These completion tuning parameters change the # default behavior of bash_completion: # Define to avoid stripping description in --option=description of './configure --help' COMP_CONFIGURE_HINTS=1 # Define to avoid flattening internal contents of tar files COMP_TAR_INTERNAL_PATHS=1 # If this shell is interactive, turn on programmable completion enhancements. # Any completions you add in ~/.bash_completion are sourced last. case $- in *i*) [[ -f /etc/bash_completion ]] && . /etc/bash_completion ;; esac #------------- History options ------------- # # Don't put duplicate lines in the history. export HISTCONTROL="ignoredups" # Ignore some controlling instructions export HISTIGNORE="ls:ls *:[ ]*:&:cd:cd ..:exit:hi:s:f:m:um" # Whenever displaying the prompt, write the previous line to disk export PROMPT_COMMAND="history -a" #------------- Aliases ------------- # # If these are enabled they will be used instead of any instructions # they may mask. For example, alias rm='rm -i' will mask the rm # application. # # To override the alias instruction use a \ before, ie # \rm will call the real rm not the alias. # # To see all aliases, type alias. # Use unalias to remove a definition. # Interactive operation... alias rm='rm -i' alias cp='cp -i' alias mv='mv -i' alias up='cd ..' # Default to human readable figures alias df='df -h' alias du='du -hac' # Misc :) alias less='less -r' # raw control characters alias whence='type -a' # where, of a sort alias grep='grep --color' # show differences in colour alias hi=history # Some shortcuts for different directory listings alias ls='ls -hF ${ls_color_option}' alias dir='ls --color=auto --format=vertical' alias ll='ls -l' # long list alias la='ls -A' # all but . and .. alias l='ls -CF' # #------------- Utility functions ------------- # Recursive search for a string in a file. function grepall() { if [ $# == 0 ] then echo "Usage: grepall " fi # Grab the function argument, bash style. pat=$1 echo "Searching all subdirectories for pattern ${pat}" find . -name '*.[ch]' -exec grep -iH "${pat}" {} ';' find . -name '*.hpp' -exec grep -iH "${pat}" {} ';' find . -name '*.cpp' -exec grep -iH "${pat}" {} ';' find . -name '*.py' -exec grep -iH "${pat}" {} ';' find . -name '*.m' -exec grep -iH "${pat}" {} ';' find . -name '*.js' -exec grep -iH "${pat}" {} ';' find . -name '*.java' -exec grep -iH "${pat}" {} ';' find . -name '*.pl' -exec grep -iH "${pat}" {} ';' find . -name '*.prl' -exec grep -iH "${pat}" {} ';' find . -name '*.html' -exec grep -iH "${pat}" {} ';' find . -name '*.css' -exec grep -iH "${pat}" {} ';' find . -name 'makefile' -exec grep -iH "${pat}" {} ';' find . -name '*.dat' -exec grep -iH "${pat}" {} ';' find . -name '*.txt' -exec grep -iH "${pat}" {} ';' } function touchall() { find . -exec touch {} ';' } function testOptions() { if [ $# == 0 ] then echo "Number of arguments to testOptions is $#" fi # No spaces around the equals allowed in bash! a1=$1 echo "You said |${a1}|" # Compare the first 3 letters. if [ "${a1:0:3}" == "tes" ] then echo "You said testOptions tes" else echo "What did you say?" fi } # Launch gvim editor. function gvim() { # No file name given? if [ $# == 0 ] then # Remove the old file. fileName="${HOME}/temp.txt" if [ -f "${fileName}" ] ; then echo "Removing file ${fileName}" rm -rf ${fileName} fi # Remove any swap file. fileNameSwap="${HOME}.vim/.swp/temp.txt.swp" if [ -f "${fileNameSwap}" ] ; then echo "Removing swap file ${fileNameSwap}" rm -rf ${fileNameSwap} fi # Create a new file. echo -n > ${fileName} echo "Opening temporary file ${fileName}" else fileName=$1 fi # Launch GUI Vim on my Mac OS X machine. if [ "${hostname}" == "Artificer" ] ; then open -a MacVim "${fileName}" # Launch GUI Vim on my Ubuntu Linux machine elif [ "${hostname}" == "Gauss" ] ; then /usr/bin/gvim "${fileName}" # Else assume gvim installed on a Unix system. else /usr/bin/gvim "${fileName}" fi } # Remove temporary files. function cleanall() { if [ $# != 0 ] then echo "Usage: cleanall" fi find . -name '*~' -print -exec rm -f {} \; find . -name '._*' -print -exec rm -f {} \; find . -name '.DS_Store*' -print -exec rm -f {} \; find . -name 'Thumbs.db' -print -exec rm -f {} \; find . -name '*.swp' -print -exec rm -f {} \; find . -name '*.o' -print -exec rm -f {} \; find . -name '*.class' -print -exec rm -f {} \; find . -name '*.o~$' -print -exec rm -f {} \; find . -name '*.o~>' -print -exec rm -f {} \; find . -name '*.dSYM' -print -exec rm -rf {} \; find . -name '*.obj' -print -exec rm -rf {} \; find . -name '*.ncb' -print -exec rm -rf {} \; find . -name '*.suo' -print -exec rm -rf {} \; find . -name '*.idb' -print -exec rm -rf {} \; find . -name '*.pdb' -print -exec rm -rf {} \; find . -name '*.manifest' -print -exec rm -rf {} \; find . -name '*.Spotlight-V100' -print -exec rm -rf {} \; find . -name '*.Trash*' -print -exec rm -rf {} \; find . -name '*.fseventsd' -print -exec rm -rf {} \; }
#============================================================================= # # FILE NAME # # .bash_logout # # DESCRIPTION # # bash shell executed upon logout. # Install into your home directory ~. # # DATE # # 19 Apr 10 # # AUTHOR # # Sean E. O'Connor # #============================================================================= # # Clean up. # rm -f ~/.bash_history #rm -f ~/.viminfo


I use Git for source code control. It's out of the box in Mac OS and you can install in Ubuntu Linux using

sudo apt install git

It's described in the Git Pro 2 Book. Here's an example of how I set up my Git repository for my Primpoly project using local repositories.

Git Configuration.

The bash parameter ${web_dir} points to my top level web directory on my disk.

In your home directory $HOME, edit the file .gitconfig to add your email and user name plus your default editor,

[user] email = name = Sean E. O'Connor [core] editor = vim excludesfile = /Users/seanoconnor/.gitignore [merge] tool = opendiff conflictstyle = diff3 [difftool] prompt = false # Don't prompt the user to hit RETURN before the next file difference. [difftool "opendiff"] # cmd = echo 'base(ancestor base for the merge) = ' \"$BASE\" 'local(file on current branch) = ' \"$LOCAL\" 'remote(file to be merged) = ' \"$REMOTE\" 'merged(what mergetool should write) = ' \"$MERGED\" cmd = opendiff \"$LOCAL\" \"$REMOTE\" -merge \"$MERGED\" [mergetool "opendiff"] cmd = opendiff \"$LOCAL\" \"$REMOTE\" -ancestor \"$BASE\" -merge \"$MERGED\" trustExitCode = true [push] default = simple [credential] helper = cache [alias] unstage = reset HEAD -- uncheckin = checkout --
and which files to ignore globally by git,
$ cd $ cat .gitignore *.html
Create a Bare Repository

Create a local directory to serve as the Git repository.

cd ${web_dir} cd private mkdir repos cd repos

In your .bashrc file in home directory, add the location of the local Git repository,

#------------- Git ------- # Location of git repository. export GITREPOS="${web_dir}/private/repos"
Make a subdirectory for the project, then initialize the repository.
$ mkdir Primpoly ; cd Primpoly $ git --bare init Initialized empty Git repository in $web_dir/private/repos/Primpoly/ $ la HEAD branches/ config description hooks/ info/ objects/ refs/
Add Files to Source Code Control

Go to the directory containing the source files and initialize Git.

cd ~/Desktop/Sean/WebSite/Mathematics/AbstractAlgebra/PrimitivePolynomials/Project/SourceCode/Primpoly $ git init Initialized empty Git repository in /Users/seanoconnor/Desktop/Sean/WebSite/Mathematics/AbstractAlgebra/PrimitivePolynomials/Project/SourceCode/Primpoly/.git/

Place the source files under source code control. We don't add the html files since they are automatically generated.

$ git add *.cpp *.h /FactorTables $ git status On branch master Initial commit Changes to be committed: (use "git rm --cached <file>..." to unstage) new file: FactorTables/c02minus.txt ... new file: FactorTables/c12plus.txt new file: Primpoly.cpp ... new file: ppUnitTest.h Untracked files: (use "git add <file>..." to include in what will be committed) Primpoly.cpp.html ... ppUnitTest.h.html

Your files are staged now. When ready, do a commit,

$ git commit -m "Initial import from SVN." [master (root-commit) 75fa9b1] Initial import from SVN. 32 files changed, 46548 insertions(+) create mode 100755 FactorTables/c02minus.txt ... create mode 100755 FactorTables/c12plus.txt create mode 100755 Primpoly.cpp ... create mode 100755 ppUnitTest.h

Now we let the local directory Primpoly know about the remote repository.

$ git remote add origin $GITREPOS/Primpoly/ $ git remote show origin $ git remote -v origin ${web_dir}/private/repos/Primpoly/ (push)

Then we push up to the remote repository,

$ git push origin master Counting objects: 35, done. Delta compression using up to 8 threads. Compressing objects: 100% (35/35), done. Writing objects: 100% (35/35), 1.10 MiB | 0 bytes/s, done. Total 35 (delta 2), reused 0 (delta 0) To $GITREPOS/Primpoly/ * [new branch] master -> master

To avoid specifying origin and master each time you pull and push, you can track the remote repository,

$ git pull There is no tracking information for the current branch. Please specify which branch you want to merge with. See git-pull(1) for details. git pull <remote> <branch> If you wish to set tracking information for this branch you can do so with: git branch --set-upstream-to=origin/<branch> master $ git branch --set-upstream-to=origin/master Branch master set up to track remote branch master from origin.

Verify the git repository is set up correctly by doing a test clone from the remote repository, and verify there are no differences between it and your local repository,

$ cd ~/Desktop $ git clone $GITREPOS/Primpoly Cloning into 'Primpoly'... done. $ diff -r ~/Desktop/Primpoly \ ~/Desktop/Sean/WebSite/Mathematics/AbstractAlgebra/PrimitivePolynomials/Project/SourceCode/Primpoly

You can use Mac OS X mergetool/opendiff to resolve conflicts.

$ git mergetool


Somewhat long in the tooth, I use make


C++ Compilers

Start by reading the textbooks A Tour of C++ by Bjarne Stroustrup and The C++ Programming Language, 4th Edition then read the latest updates in the C++ Super-FAQ and the C FAQ

Mac OS X development tools contain the clang C++ and C compilers. They come with XCode.

Ubuntu Linux To get C++ and C working in Ubuntu Linux, install clang and explicity install its libraries,

sudo apt-get install clang sudo apt-get install libc++-dev sudo apt-get install libc++abi-dev

Then you can compile thus:

$ cat foo.cpp #include <string> #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main(int argc,char** argv) { string s(argv[0]); cout <<s <<endl; } $ clang++ -std=c++11 -stdlib=libc++ foo.cpp

If that doesn't work (but it should), change your makefiles by replacing the default library -stdlib=libc++, with the older GNU library -stdlib=libstdc++

# This is OK if we switch to the older GNU library. $ clang++ -std=c++11 -stdlib=libstdc++ foo.cpp

Windows You can use the C++ compiler in the Cygwin development tools or you can download Visual Studio Express and follow instructions.

C++ GUIs

I haven't tried them yet but the C++ GUIs FoxTookit and WxWidgets sound interesting. WxWidgets looks a lot like Windows API with classes. Here is a tutorial ending up with source code for a tetris game.

LLDB Debugger

I use the lldb debugger in the llvm toolchain which comes installed on Mac OS X.

# Load executable compiled with -g option. lldb Bin/Primpoly.exe (lldb) target create "Bin/Primpoly.exe" Current executable set to 'Bin/Primpoly.exe' (x86_64). # Set a breakpoint in the code. (lldb) b ppBigInt.cpp:433 Breakpoint 2: where = Primpoly.exe`BigInt::operator unsigned long() const + 18 at ppBigInt.cpp:433, address = 0x000000010000fa92 # Run the program. (lldb) run 2 4 Process 49251 launched: '/Users/seanoconnor/Desktop/Sean/WebSite/Mathematics/AbstractAlgebra/PrimitivePolynomials/Project/Build/Bin/Primpoly.exe' (x86_64) Primpoly Version 13.0 - A Program for Computing Primitive Polynomials. Copyright (C) 1999-2018 by Sean Erik O'Connor. All Rights Reserved. ... Process 49251 stopped * thread #1: tid = 0x8a8db2, 0x000000010000fa92 Primpoly.exe`BigInt::operator unsigned long(this=0x00007fff5fbf8d18) const + 18 at ppBigInt.cpp:433, queue = '', stop reason = breakpoint 2.1 frame #0: 0x000000010000fa92 Primpoly.exe`BigInt::operator unsigned long(this=0x00007fff5fbf8d18) const + 18 at ppBigInt.cpp:433 430 BigInt::operator ppuint() const 431 throw( BigIntOverflow, bad_exception ) 432 { -> 433 ppuint result = 0 ; 434 ppuint b = base_() ; 435 436 for (int i = static_cast<unsigned int> digit_.size()) - 1 ; i > 0 ; --i) # Backtrace (lldb) bt * thread #1: tid = 0x8a8db2, 0x000000010000fa92 Primpoly.exe`BigInt::operator unsigned long(this=0x00007fff5fbf8d18) const + 18 at ppBigInt.cpp:433, queue = '', stop reason = breakpoint 2.1 * frame #0: 0x000000010000fa92 Primpoly.exe`BigInt::operator unsigned long(this=0x00007fff5fbf8d18) const + 18 at ppBigInt.cpp:433 frame #1: 0x00000001000dc1b9 Primpoly.exe`unitTest() + 16233 at ppUnitTest.cpp:641 frame #2: 0x0000000100000c89 Primpoly.exe`main(argc=3, argv=0x00007fff5fbff600) + 89 at Primpoly.cpp:162 frame #3: 0x00007fff934cd5ad libdyld.dylib`start + 1 # Step to next line. (lldb) n Process 49251 stopped * thread #1: tid = 0x8a8db2, 0x000000010000fa9d Primpoly.exe`BigInt::operator unsigned long(this=0x00007fff5fbf8d18) const + 29 at ppBigInt.cpp:434, queue = '', stop reason = step over frame #0: 0x000000010000fa9d Primpoly.exe`BigInt::operator unsigned long(this=0x00007fff5fbf8d18) const + 29 at ppBigInt.cpp:434 431 throw( BigIntOverflow, bad_exception ) 432 { 433 ppuint result = 0 ; -> 434 ppuint b = base_() ; 435 436 for (int i = static_cast<unsigned int> digit_.size()) - 1 ; i > 0 ; --i) 437 { # List breakpoints. (lldb) br l Current breakpoints: 1: file = 'ppBigInt.cpp', line = 433, locations = 1, resolved = 1, hit count = 1 1.1: where = Primpoly.exe`BigInt::operator unsigned long() const + 18 at ppBigInt.cpp:433, address = 0x000000010000fa92, resolved, hit count = 1 2: name = 'l', locations = 0 (pending) 3: name = 'list', locations = 0 (pending) 4: name = 'l', locations = 0 (pending) # Delete all breakpoints. (lldb) br del About to delete all breakpoints, do you want to do that?: ÆY/nÅ y All breakpoints removed. (4 breakpoints) # Print a value. (lldb) p digit_ (std::__1::vector<unsigned long, std::__1::allocator<unsigned long> >) $4 = size=4 { [0] = 4 [1] = 3 [2] = 2 [3] = 1


Go to Python and download the latest version of Python from the site. Go to custom and make sure it installs into the correct directories on the system.

It's also a good idea to update the Python's PIP package installer,

python -mpip install --upgrade pip

Windows On a Windows system, install into C:\Program Files\Python Go to Start/Control Panel/System/Advanced/Environment Variables and add the string ;C:\Python31; to the end of the path. For cygwin, in your Bash profile in your home directory, /cygdrive/c/cygwin/home/.bashrc, put PATH="/cygdrive/c/Python31:${PATH}" or else you can do a symbolic link, cd /usr/bin ; rm python ; ln -s /cygdrive/c/Python31/python3 python"

Mac or Ubuntu Linux Place code in your .bash_profile to set the path to Python 3.x Then run python -V to check the version is 3x and type quit() to exit. Keep the tutorial and library reference handy. Or better yet, download the whole set.

If you program LISP already, Python is very similar.

Common Lisp

My parser generator project is coded in Common Lisp.

Macs Download the install package for the binary from Steel Bank Common Lisp. Unpack and follow instructions.

$ sudo INSTALL_ROOT=/usr/local sh ... SBCL has been installed: binary /usr/local/bin/sbcl core and contribs in /usr/local/lib/sbcl/

You'll get a bare-bones command line REPL. Try running $ sbcl from the command line and try (car '(a b c)) and (cdr '(a b)) and (quit) For convenience, I load my LISP parser generator project files in the SBCL startup file .sbclrc

(load "LR(1)AndLALR(1)ParserGenerator.lsp") (load "LR(1)AndLALR(1)Parser.lsp") (test-parser-generator) (test-parser)

However, your life will be much easier if youw download and install Slime Unpack and install the slime directory in /Applications/slime then install this .emacs file in your home directory:

(setq inferior-lisp-program "/usr/local/bin/sbcl") (add-to-list 'load-path "/Applications/slime") (require 'slime) (slime-setup)
Vim, Ctags, Emacs, Slime, Steel Bank Common Lisp.

You should also install Emacs Invoke Emacs and with the command M-x slime go into Lisp interaction mode. Useful REPL commands are Control-c Control-p to move back one prompt, Control-c Control-n to move forward, Control-a and Control-e to go to beginning and end of the line, Control-x o to switch between buffers, Control-C Control-D d to lookup documentation for a symbol, and Control-X Control-S to exit emacs.

For LISP tutorials and references online see

I've also used CLISP


I was programming in Perl and switched over to Python after discovering this article.


The first language I learned was FORTRAN from Bill Joy at U. C. Berkeley!

Berkeley Computing Center Punched card circa 1975.
Berkeley Computing Center Punched card circa 1975.

It now has object oriented programming!

On Ubuntu Linux install GNU Fortran using

sudo apt-get install gfortran

Here's a sample program

$ cat circle.f90 ! A module containing classes. module class_Circle implicit none private real :: pi = 3.1415926535897931d0 ! Module-wide private constant ! Circle class. type, public :: Circle ! Member variable. real :: radius contains ! Member functions defined here but implemented elsewhere in the module. procedure :: area => circle_area procedure :: print => circle_print end type Circle ! Circle member functions implemented here. contains function circle_area( this ) result( area ) class( Circle ), intent( in ) :: this real :: area area = pi * this%radius ** 2 end function circle_area subroutine circle_print(this) class( Circle ), intent( in ) :: this real :: area area = this%area() ! Call the type-bound function print *, 'Circle: r = ', this%radius, ' area = ', area end subroutine circle_print end module class_Circle program circle_test use class_Circle ! Use the classes in the module. implicit none type( Circle ) :: c ! Declare a variable of type Circle. c = Circle( 1.5 ) ! Use the implicit constructor, radius = 1.5. call c%print ! Call the type-bound subroutine end program circle_test

Build it and run it!

$ gfortran circle.f90 -o circle ./circle Circle: r = 1.50000000 area = 7.06858349


Octave is a free MATLAB clone.

Run from /Applications. It comes up in a terminal window. In the window, cd to your working directory containing your MATLAB .m files. Type the name of your MATLAB function or type the name of the .m file if you have just an inline main program. Plots will pop up in a separate window using the X11 windowing system.


Sympy is a symbolic math package build on top of python. Here's how to install on both Mac and Ubuntu Linux

First install mpmath by doing

git clone git:// cd mpmath git pull sudo python install
Then install sympy by doing
git clone git:// cd sympy git pull sudo python install
To do plotting, install matplotlib by doing,
python -mpip install -U matplotlib
Test by running Python, importing sympy and running a few commands,
python Python 3.5.2 (default, Nov 23 2017, 16:37:01) [GCC 5.4.0 20160609] on linux Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information. >>> from sympy import * >>> init_printing() >>> x = Symbol('x') >>> f = Function('f') >>> f = sin(x) >>> diff(f,x) cos(x) >>> integrate(f,x) -cos(x) >>> f.series(x,0,10) x - x**3/6 + x**5/120 - x**7/5040 + x**9/362880 + O(x**10) >>> a = Symbol('a') >>> b = Symbol('b') >>> c = Symbol('c') >>> d = Symbol('d') >>> m = Matrix( [[ a, b] , [c, d] ] ) >>> m ⎡a b⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣c d⎦ > >>> m.eigenvals() ⎧ _________________________ _________________________ ⎫ ⎪ ╱ 2 2 ╱ 2 2 ⎪ ⎨a d ╲╱ a - 2⋅a⋅d + 4⋅b⋅c + d a d ╲╱ a - 2⋅a⋅d + 4⋅b⋅c + d ⎬ ⎪─ + ─ - ────────────────────────────: 1, ─ + ─ + ────────────────────────────: 1⎪ ⎩2 2 2 2 2 2 ⎭ >>> m * (m ** -1) ⎡ a⋅d b⋅c ⎤ ⎢───────── - ───────── 0 ⎥ ⎢a⋅d - b⋅c a⋅d - b⋅c ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ a⋅d b⋅c ⎥ ⎢ 0 ───────── - ─────────⎥ ⎣ a⋅d - b⋅c a⋅d - b⋅c⎦ >>> simplify( m * (m ** -1)) ⎡1 0⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣0 1⎦

And here's a simple plot,

>>> plot(x**2,(x,-1,1))
Ubuntu Display Settings Part 1.
Sympy plot( x**2, (x,-1,1))


VIM Programmer's Editor

Download gvim from Vim for Mac and Ubuntu Linux. Don't forget the Vim User Manual and tutorial.

In Ubuntu Linux do this:

sudo apt-get install vim sudo apt-get install vim-gnome

I've customized the Vim GUI in the startup file .vimrc which lives in the home directory ~ on Mac or Ubuntu Linux. On Windows the home directory is C:/Program Files/vim Here is my .vimrc

"============================================================================= " " NAME " " .vimrc " " DESCRIPTION " " Settings for Vim editor loaded upon startup. " " NOTES " " UNIX, Mac OS X: Copy to ~/.vimrc " Windows: Copy to C:/Program Files/vim/_vimrc " " AUTHOR " " Bram Moolenaar <> " Sean E. O'Connor 23 Jun 2018 " "============================================================================= " " Use Vim settings, rather then Vi settings (much better!). " This must be first, because it changes other options as a side effect. set nocompatible " Mouse and window behavior tuned for Microslime Windows. behave mswin " Restore Control-F to page forward instead of find dialog box. "unmap<C-F> " Allow backspacing over everything in insert mode. set backspace=indent,eol,start " Turn on backup option. set backup " Create the backup directory if it doesn't exist. if !isdirectory($HOME.'/.vim/.backup') silent call mkdir( $HOME.'/.vim/.backup', 'p' ) endif " Store backups in the home directory ~/.vim/.backup. set backupdir=~/.vim/.backup " Make a backup before overwriting the current buffer. set writebackup " Overwrite the original backup file. set backupcopy=yes " Put swap files in the home directory ~/.vim/.swp if !isdirectory($HOME."/.vim/.swp") silent call mkdir( $HOME.'/.vim/.swp', 'p' ) endif set directory=~/.vim/.swp set history=500 " Keep 500 lines of command line history. set ruler " Show the cursor position all the time. set showcmd " Display incomplete commands. set incsearch " Do incremental searching. set hlsearch " Searches are highlighted. set wildmenu " File name completing using tabs cycles through all possibilities. set lazyredraw " Don't redraw screen while running macros. set lines=60 " Number of lines visible on the screen. set columns=140 " Number of columns visible on the screen. winpos 400 45 " Initial window position (MacBookPro). set winwidth=140 " Initial window width. set winminwidth=140 " set cursorline " Highlight the current line. set number " Show line numbers. set smartindent " Use smart indenting. set tabstop=4 " Tabs are 4 spaces wide. set softtabstop=4 " When editing, tabs are 4 spaces wide. set shiftwidth=4 " Indent 4 spaces. set expandtab " Expand tabs into spaces. set smarttab set showmatch " Show matching parentheses. set matchtime=5 " Match time is 1/2 sec. " Error blink and bell. set errorbells set visualbell " Set file paths to my most commonly used directories (MacBookPro). set path="~/Applications/vim/**" set path+="~/Desktop/Sean/WebSite/**" " Default directory is my current active subdirectory " in my web page directory. " This is where :e . takes us. cd ~/Desktop/Sean/WebSite/Mathematics/AbstractAlgebra/PrimitivePolynomials/Project/SourceCode " Set paths for tags files generated by Ctags. See :help tags " "./tags" means search for the file "tags" in the same directory as the current f i l e you are editing. " "tags" means search for the file "tags" in the current working directory (the directory shown by the command :pwd) " NOTE: this is affected if you set autochdir (see below). " Then search from the directory containing tags to your home directory. set tags=./tags,tags;~ " Automatically change the current working directory to the one containing the file which was opened. See :help autochdir "Note: When this option is on some plugins may not work. set autochdir " Color them the same as the C group-name "Type". highlight link xType Type " =============================================================================== " | Color scheme and font for the full gVim GUI. " | Use the default for launching vim from a command window. " =============================================================================== if has("gui_running") colorscheme torte " To verify the if condition, on the Vim command line, do " :echo has("x11") " and look for 1 or 0. " " To find out the font type: " In the Vim command line, do " :set guifont=* " to make a menu come up. " " Select the font from the menu. " " Do the command " :set guifont? " to find out the name. " " In the if tests below, add " set guifont=<name of the font> " Escape all spaces with backslashes. " if has("gui_win32") set guifont=Courier_New:h13:b " Test for Mac first. elseif has("mac") set guifont=Menlo\ Regular:h12 " On Ubuntu Linux elseif has("x11") set guifont=Courier\ 10\ Pitch\ Bold\ 13" " Otherwise else set guifont=* endif endif " Switch syntax highlighting on, when the terminal has colors. " Also switch on highlighting the last used search pattern. if &t_Co > 2 || has("gui_running") syntax on set hlsearch endif " Abbreviations. :iabbrev soc Sean E. O'Connor " Insert html math symbols. map ,th i<em>Theorem.<em> map ,pf i<em>Proof.<em> map ,lem i<em>Lemma.<em> map ,cor i<em>Corollary.<em> map ,qed $\blacksquare$ " Insert html emphasis. map ,em i<em><em><ESC>4hi " Insert html paragraph. map ,par i<p><CR><CR><p><ESC>ki " Insert an image. map ,img i<img class="centeredsmaller" src="WebPageImages/thingumbob.jpg"><ESC>4bdwi " Insert hyperlink. map ,hr i<a href=""><a><ESC>0f"a " Insert a scroll box. map ,sb i<div class="scrollBox"> <div class="scrollBoxContent"><CR><CR><div><div><ESC>ki " Reload this VIM resource file. map ,sou :source $HOME/.vimrc<CR> " Save the file. map ,sa :w<CR> " Trim blanks at end of all lines. Turn off search highlighting. map ,tbe :%s/\s*$//<CR><ESC>:nohlsearch<CR><ESC> " Make p in Visual mode replace the selected text with the "" register. vnoremap p <Esc>:let current_reg = @"<CR>gvs<C-R>=current_reg<CR><Esc> " Turn off highlighting after searches. map ,<SPACE> :nohlsearch<CR> " Toggle comment lines. You can highlight the range " with the mouse and then type ,to map ,to :call ToggleComment()<CR> function! ToggleComment() " Get the line under the cursor " Check if it begins with | if getline(".") =~ '^|' let s:savedSearchPat=@/ s/^|// let @/=s:savedSearchPat else let s:savedSearchPat=@/ s/^/|/ let @/=s:savedSearchPat endif endfunction map ,ch :call CleanHTML()<CR> function! CleanHTML() s/>/\>/g s/<lt;/g s/&/\&/g endfunction " Convert C comments on a line to C++ comments. map ,cc :call ConvertCCommentToCpp()<CR> function! ConvertCCommentToCpp() " Get the line under the cursor " Check if contains a /* if getline(".") =~ '\/\*' let s:savedSearchPat=@/ s/\/\*/\/\// let @/=s:savedSearchPat endif if getline(".") =~ '\*\/' let s:savedSearchPat=@/ s/\*\/// let @/=s:savedSearchPat endif endfunction " Justify a paragraph. map ,j gqap
Installing Ctags

Universal Ctags is a successor to Exuberant Ctags. To install it on Mac first install Brew then install ctags,

/usr/bin/ruby -e "$(curl -fsSL" brew install --HEAD universal-ctags/universal-ctags/universal-ctags

Then add to your path in .bash_profile,

ctagspath="/usr/local/Cellar/universal-ctags/HEAD-4fe1a60/bin" PATH="${ctagspath}:${PATH}" export PATH

To install it on Ubuntu Linux, download several tools first, then download the source code, build and install

sudo apt install linuxbrew-wrapper brew doctor sudo apt install automake cd ~ git clone cd ctags/ sudo apt install pkg-config sudo apt install pkgconf ./ ./configure make sudo make install ctags --help

But for the nostalgic, exuberant ctags is still available on Ubuntu Linux

sudo apt install exuberant-ctags
Searching Multiple Files in Vim

For example, to search all *.cpp files in the current directory for the word static_cast, do this on the vim command line:

:vimgrep /static_cast/ **/*.cpp :copen 20

You can then go to the line containing the pattern you want and hit return to go to the file.

Searching Patterns in Multiple Files in Vim
File Differences in Vim
To do file differences, load the first file, ignore whitespace with :diffopt=iwhite, then do :diffsplit <second file name>. :diffupdate will resync if needed.

GIMP Paint Program

Similar to Adobe Photoshop with paint tools and layers, but free, GIMP runs on both Windows, Mac, and Ubuntu Linux download it and its documentation from Gimp

In Ubuntu Linux install with

sudo apt-get install gimp


Blender is a free 3D rendering and animation tool. I have a worked example on my art page.


I use Inkscape to do the drawing and generate SVG files.

Open Office Suite

Free office suite software set with spreadsheets, presentation software, word processing, and drawing from Open Office.


For Mac OS install from MacTex TeX User's Group,

For Ubuntu Linux install using the Texlive install instructions which are essentially,

sudo apt install texlive-latex-base # Test generate a .DVI text file using latex small2e

Be sure to read the quickie introduction A (Not So) Short Introduction to LATEX2ε


Netzero ISP

I used connect to the internet through the dialup telephone line using Netzero but now I use AT&T Uverse.


On Mac OS I use the FTP client Transmit. Not free but very easy to use.

On Ubuntu Linux I use the free FTP client FileZilla.

Zip File Compression Software Windows

Install PKZIP from PKWare or use Gzip

Web Browsers

Download the Firefox, Opera and Chromium browsers.



Stellarium is a free planetarium program.

Red Pill Screen Saver

Get the source code from GitHub opx3 / RedPill2. You can clone the repository using

git clone

Build in XCode in Release mode. Let XCode update your settings. Double click on RedPill.saver to load it.

Copyright © 1999-2018 by Sean Erik O'Connor. All Rights Reserved.     last updated 15 Jul 18.